All referenced text is excerpted from the 4th edition (second printing) of the book What If Everything You Thought You Knew About AIDS Was Wrong? and wherever possible, has been updated for this web site.

1. In the United States, AIDS = 28 old illnesses and one non-illness:

1983 original AIDS definition (12 illnesses): Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, Kaposi's sarcoma, toxoplasmosis, strongyloidosis, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, candidiasis, cryptosporidiosis, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, lymphoma of the brain

1985 revised definition (seven more old illnesses added): Mycobacterium avium complex, histoplasmosis, isosporiasis, Burkitt's lymphoma, immunoblastic lymphoma, candidiasis of the bronchi, trachea and lungs, and a positive HIV antibody test.

1987 revised definition (six additional illnesses): Encephalopathy, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, wasting syndrome, coccidioidomycosis, cytomegalovirus retinitis, Salmonella septicemia. HIV antibody test no longer required.

1993 revised definition (three more illnesses plus one surrogate marker): Recurrent bacterial pneumonia, invasive cervical cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, T Cell count of <200 or <14% of total lymphocytes (non-illness).

Source: Duesberg P, Yiamouyannis J, 1995 AIDS: The Good News Is HIV Doesn't Cause It Health Action Press

2. US Centers for Disease Control 1994 HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report Year-end edition 1993

3. Navarro M AIDS Definition Widened to Include Blood Cell Count August 8 1993 New York Times; Altman L AIDS Cases Increase Among Heterosexuals March 11 1994 New York Times

4. US Centers for Disease Control HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report Year-end editions 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993

5. US Centers for Disease Control 1998 HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report Year-end edition 1997 Table11 p17

6. US Centers for Disease Control 1999 HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report Year-end edition 1998 p43

7. Duesberg P 1993 The HIV Gap in National Statistics Bio/Technology 11:955-6

8. Laboratory Centre for Disease Control, Health Canada, 1998 HIV and AIDS in Canada: Surveillance Report to December 31, 1997; US Centers for Disease Control 1999 HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report Year-end 1998

9. US Centers for Disease Control 1998 HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report Year-end edition 1997 Figure 6 p25; US Centers for Disease Control 1999 HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report Year-end edition 1998

10. World Health Organization 1985 Bangui definition for AIDS in Africa (current use confirmed by WHO April 1999); WHO case definitions for AIDS surveillance in adults and adolescents, Weekly Epidemiological Record September 1994; 69:273-80 (current use confirmed by WHO April 1999)

11. Duesberg P 1996 Inventing the AIDS Virus: Regnery Press, Washington DC p141-145

12. Duesberg P 1996 Inventing the AIDS Virus: Regnery Press, Washington DC p54-58

13. Carins J 1978 Cancer: Science and Society WH Freeman and Company, San Francisco

14. Duesberg P, Rasnick D 1998 The AIDS Dilemma: Drug Diseases Blamed on a Passenger Virus Genetica 104:85-132; Mullis K 1998 Dancing Naked in the Mindfield Pantheon Books, New York p171-190; Shenton J 1998 Positively False St Martin's Press, New York p6-17

15. Mullis K 1988 Dancing Naked in the Mindfield Pantheon Books, New York p 178; Duesberg P 1996 Inventing the AIDS Virus Regnery Press, Washington DC p 89-96

16. Altman L New York Times, April 23 1984

17. Altman L Researchers Believe AIDS Virus is Found New York Times, April 24 1984 (Dr. James Curran, head of the CDC's AIDS investigating team, calls discovery "the virus that causes AIDS")

18. Gallo found HIV in only 26 of 63 AIDS patients (41%) Source: Gallo R May 4 1984 Science Volume 224 p502

19. In 1983, Montagnier sent Gallo "retrovirus particles" (LAV) taken from the lymph node of a male homosexual without AIDS. Source: Science May 20 1983, Vol 220; the virus Gallo claimed to have discovered in 1984 was found to actually be Montagnier's LAV. Source: New Scientist, February 12 1987

20. Dingell J Misconduct in Medical Research, New England Journal of Medicine 1993 328:1610-1615; Co-Discoverer of HIV Loses Bid to Regain Job AIDS Policy and Law May 14 1999 Vol 14 No 9; Crewdson J In Gallo Case, Truth Termed a Casualty: Science Subverted in AIDS Research Chicago Tribune, January 1 1995

21. Baffour A Are 26 Million Africans Dying of AIDS? December 1998 New African Magazine p34-42

22. Duesberg P Inventing the AIDS Virus Regnery Press, Washington DC; Root-Bernstein R 1993 Rethinking AIDS The Free Press, New York

23. Cordes R, et al 1995 Pitfalls in HIV Testing Postgraduate Medicine 98:177; Langedijk J, et al 1992 Identification of Cross-reaction Epitopes Recognized by HIV-1 False-positive Sera AIDS 6:1547-1548; Strandstrom H, et al 1990 Studies with Canine Sera that Contain Antibodies which Recognize HIV Structural Proteins Cancer Research, September 1:50(17 Suppl):56285-56305; Germanson T 1989 Screening for HIV: Can We Afford the Confusion of the False Positive Rate? Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 42:1235; Weiss R, et al 1988 HIV Testing is the Answer-What's the Question? New England Journal of Medicine 319:1010-1012; Burke, et al 1988 Measurement of the False Positive Rate in a Screening Program for HIV Infections New England Journal of Medicine 319(15):961-964; US News and World Report, November 23 1987 p22c; Jackson G, et al 1988 Passive Immunoneutralisation of Human Immuno-deficiency Virus in Patients with Advanced AIDS Lancet, September 17:647

24. Papadopulos-Eleopulos E, et al 1993 Is a Positive Western Blot Proof of HIV Infection? Bio/Technology Journal Vol 11 p696-707

25. Papadopulos-Eleopulos E, et al 1993 Has Gallo Proven the Role of HIV in AIDS? Emergency Medicine 5:113-123

26. Papadopulos-Eleopulous E, et al 1993 Is a Positive Western Blot Proof of HIV Infection? Bio/Technology Vol. 11

27. Strandstrom H, et al 1990 Studies with Canine Sera which Recognise HIV Structural Proteins, Cancer Research 50:5628s-5630s. Source: Testing, Testing, 1,2,3... Turner V 1996 Contiuum Vol 3:5 p8-11

28. Papadopolus-Eleopulos E, et al 1993 Is a Positive Western Blot Proof of HIV Infection? Bio/Technology Journal Vol 11 p696-701; Quantum Clinical Laboratory, Los Angeles, CA: HIV antibody test results for Christine Maggiore April 9 1992 HIV reactive, WB positive positive; March 27 1993 HIV reactive, WB indeterminate; September 1 1993 HIV non-reactive

29. Abbott Laboratory's ELISA HIV antibody test kit pamphlet

30. Continuum Vol 3:4 with thanks to Val Turner, Royal Perth Hospital, Australia; Bio/Technology June 1993 11:696-707

31. Roche Amplicor PCR Diagnostics HIV-1 Monitor test kit pamphlet

33. Curran J 1985 The Epidemiology of AIDS: Current Status and Future Prospects Science 229:1352-1357; Karon, et al 1996 Prevalence of HIV Infections in the US Journal of the American Medical Association 276:126-131; Krieger L One in 300 US Adults Infected, San Francisco Examiner July 7 1996 pA82

34. NBC Nightly News, March 10 1995: Robert Hager of NBC reported that the CDC was about to lower estimates they knew were too high. CDC spokesperson Michelle Bond remarked that the CDC officials were reluctant to report lower numbers for fear of adverse budgetary consequences.

35. All STDs except genital herpes: US Centers for Disease Control 1997, Table 1: Cases of STDs reported by state health departments in US 1941-1997, STD Surveillance p65-66. Genital herpes: Meyer T March 24 1998 Associated Press, Atlanta (Meyer quotes CDC and Dr. Charles Bell of Texas Department of Health)

36. US Centers for Disease Control 2003 HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report Year-end edition 2002 (Deaths in persons with AIDS, cumulative totals through December 2002)

37. US Centers for Disease Control HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report Year-end edition states "Reported deaths are not necessarily caused by HIV-related disease"

38. CDC Wonder website; The New York Times, death count, all ages, all races, both genders 1981-2002

39. Lazarou J, et al 1998 Incidence of Adverse Drug Reactions in Hospitalized Patients (1966-1996) Journal of the American Medical Association, 279:1200; Manmaney T Medications Kill 100,000 Annually Los Angeles Times April 15 1998; CDC Wonder website 2004

40. PBS 1998 The American Experience: Influenza 1918

41. World Health Organization Weekly Epidemiological Record November 2001 (current)

42. UNAIDS June 1998 Report on the Global Epidemic; World Health Organization June 1998, Weekly Epidemiological Record

43. CDC National Vital Statistics Report October 7 1998, Vol 47:4 Table E p7 (Deaths and death rates, final 1996 and preliminary 1997)

44. Geshekter C 1997 AIDS: The Leading Cause of Unjustified Hysteria, Reappraising AIDS, February Vol 5:2

45. Institute of Medicine (IOM) 1996 Scientific Opportunities and Public Needs; Webster K Disproportionate Funding Associated Press June 16 1999

46. US Centers for Disease Control 1999 HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report Year-end edition 1998

47. Crowne D, et al 1964 The Approval Motive John Wiley and Sons, New York; Saxe L 1991 Lying: Thoughts of an Applied Social Psychologist American Psychologist 46:409-415; Source: Brody S Sex at Risk Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick

48. Brody, S 1997 Sex at Risk Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick; 80%: Potterat, et al 1987 JAMA 256 p 12; 65%: Renzullo, et al 1990 JAIDS 3, p266-271; 83%-90%: Committee on AIDS Research and the Behavioral, Social, and Statistical Sciences 1989; 69%: Chicago Dept of Public Health, Journal of AIDS 1997; 99.4%: NYC Dept of Health, American Journal of Epidemiology 137:2

49. Figures for AIDS by Risk Groups are based on cumulative figures through 1998 and do not include cases where risk status was not assessed; AIDS by Health Status are for years 1993 through 1997 using Table 11 of the 93-97 US CDC HIV/AIDS Surveillance Reports (1997 was the last year the CDC published the data in Table 11); AIDS by Gender is based on cumulative figures through 1998

50. US Centers for Disease Control 1999 HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report Year-end 1998

51. Burke D, et al 1990 Seroprevalence Among Applicants for US Military Service Unpublished data through 1997 from US Military Processing: For a copy of this unpublished data, send a SASE to the author

52. US Centers for Disease Control 1999 HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report Year-end 1998 p26

53. Duesberg P 1996 Inventing the AIDS Virus Regnery Press, Washington DC p183

54. Holding R, Carlsen W 1998 Epidemic Ravages Caregivers San Francisco Chronicle p1, A6-A8

55. US Centers for Disease Control 1999 HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report Year-end 1998 Table 7 p14; US Centers for Disease Control 1998 HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report Year-end 1997 Table 8 p15

56. Laboratory Centre for Disease Control, Health Canada, April 1998 Gonorrhea in Canada; US Centers for Disease Control 1998 HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report Year-end 1997, Tables 13A and 13B; Interview with LCDC Bureau of AIDS and STDs Office of Don Sutherland, September 14, 1998: Gonorrhea cases in Canada

57. US Centers for Disease Control 1999 HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report Year-end 1998 Table 7 p14; US Centers for Disease Control 1998 HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report Year-end 1997 Table 8 p15

58. Mok, et al 1987 Infants born to Mothers Seropositive for HIV Lancet 1164-1168; European Collaborative Study 1991 Children Born to Women with HIV 1 Lancet 337:253-260

59. Source: National Center for Health Statistics July 1996 703/821-8955: Cumulative SIDS deaths in children under 1 year of age 1983-1996, 1997 preliminary, 1981-1982 computed by average of years 1983-1993

60. Transactions of the Society of Actuaries, Vol XLIV p333-97; Boffey P April 22 1988, Researchers List Odds of Getting AIDS in Heterosexual Intercourse New York Times; Hearst N, Hulley S April 1988 Journal of the American Medical Association; Dangers Real and Imagined December 8 1997 Wall Street Journal; Discover magazine, May 1996 p82

61. World Health Organization, November 1998 Weekly Epidemiological Record (current)

62. Harvard University Global Burden of Disease Study, 1996; World Health Organization, Geneva 1996 Fighting Disease, Fostering Development; Geshekter C Rethinking AIDS in Africa Reappraising AIDS Vol 3:2 February 1995

63. World Health Organization 1985 Bangui definition for AIDS in Africa (in current use); WHO case definitions for AIDS surveillance in adults and adolescents Weekly Epidemiological Record September 1994 69:273-80 (confirmed April 1999 by WHO)

64. World Health Organization, November 1998 Weekly Epidemiological Record (current); Harvard University Global Burden of Disease Study, 1996; World Health Organization, Geneva 1996 Fighting Disease, Fostering Development; Geshekter C Rethinking AIDS in Africa Reappraising AIDS Vol 3:2 February 1995; World Health Organization 1985 Bangui definition for AIDS in Africa (in current use); WHO case definitions for AIDS surveillance in adults and adolescents Weekly Epidemiological Record September 1994 69:273-80 (confirmed April 1999 by WHO); World Health Organization World Health Report 1998 Annual cases of selected diseases

65. Kestler H, et al 1990 Induction of AIDS in Rhesus Monkey by Molecularly Cloned SIV Science 2448:1109-112; Kestler, et al 1991 Importance of Net Gene for Maintenance of High Virus Loads Cell 65:651-662; Fultz, et al 1990 Humoral Response to SIV/SMM Infection in Macaque and Mangabey Monkeys Journal of AIDS 3:319-329; Weiss R, et al 1985 Molecular Biology of RNA Tumor Viruses Cold Spring Harbor Press, New York; Blatner W, et al 1988 HIV Causes AIDS Science 241:514-515; Lambrou E 1994 AIDS Scare or Scam p14-15 Vantage Press, New York

66. Gao, et al Nature February 4 1999

67. World Health Organization, November 1998 Weekly Epidemiological Record (current)

68. Russell R Kenya Slow to Face Up to AIDS Scourge Reuters November 25 1998

69. World Health Organization World Health Report 1998

70. World Health Organization World Health Report 1998 Annual cases of selected diseases

71. Journal of AIDS 1994 7:8 p876

72. US Centers for Disease Control 1999 HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report Year-end 1998; 9(2) Calculations: David Crowe, Alberta Reappraising AIDS Society

73. US Centers for Disease Control HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report Year-end editions 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993 (AIDS indicator conditions reported by age group, United States)

74. US Centers for Disease Control 1998 HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report Year-end 1997 p25 Figure 6

75. US Centers for Disease Control 1998 HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report Year-end 1997 p25 Figure 6

76. POZ magazine July 1999: Glaxo-Wellcome Ad for Ziagen (abacavir sulfate), December 1998 MG-001; Merck Ad for Crixivan (indinavir) Merck and Co, Inc. 1998 99-4084; Roxanne Ad for Viramune (nevirapine) July 1999, RX-2140 (4/98); Glaxo-Wellcome Ad for Combivir (lamivudine/zidovudine) March 1999

77. POZ magazine July 1999: Glaxo-Wellcome Ad for Combivir

78. Hammer S, et al 1997 A Controlled Trial of Two Nucleoside Analogues Indinavir in Persons with HIV New England Journal of Medicine 337:725-733

79. Merck Ad for Crixivan (indinavir) Merck and Co, Inc. 1998 99-4084

80. POZ magazine July 1999: Glaxo-Wellcome Ad for Ziagen (abacavir sulfate), December 1998 MG-001; Merck Ad for Crixivan (indinavir) Merck and Co, Inc. 1998 99-4084; Roxanne Ad for Viramune (nevirapine) July 1999, RX-2140 (4/98); Glaxo-Wellcome Ad for Combivir (lamivudine/zidovudine), March 1999; FDA Advisory (warning of spontaneous bleeding in 15 hemophiliacs using protease inhibitors), July 16 1996; Dube M, Johnson D, et al 1997 Protease Inhibitor Associated Hyperglycemia Lancet 350:713-4; Kotler D Truncal Obesity February 20 1998 Clinical Care Options for HIV (Monthly Experts Column); Garrett L The Virus at the End of the World Esquire March 1 1999; Lo J, et al 1998 Buffalo Hump in Men with HIV-1 Lancet March 21 1998 p867-870; Miller KD, et al Visceral Abdominal Fat Accumulation Associated with Use of Indinavir p871-875; Kim L FDA Approves Another Protease Inhibitor The Atlanta Journal and Constitution April 17 1999 p2E; Mickleburgh R, Study AIDS Drugs Long Term, Makers Told The Globe and Mail (Canada) May 4 1999; Colebunders E, et al Sexual Dysfunction with Protease Inhibitors Lancet 353 May 22 1999; Waldholz M, Tanouye E Cocktail Break Wall Street Journal January 25 1999

81. James Curran on CNN, August 23 1998 8:00 pm EST

82. Altman L New Cases Widen Views About AIDS New York Times January 5 1984

83. Auberbach, et al 1984, Am J Med 76:487; Boffey P AIDS in the Future: Risk of Developing AIDS New York Times January 14 1986; JAMA 262: 3129-3130; Burkett E HIV: Not Guilty? Miami Herald December 23 1990 p12-17

84. Eckholm E Onset of AIDS After Transfusion Found to Lag Average of 5 Years, New York Times May 29 1986; Lambrou E 1994 AIDS: Scare or Scam? Vantage Press, New York p15; Garrett L June 1999 Blacks May Have Genetic Risk of HIV Infection, Alive & Kicking!; Waldholz M, Tanouye E Cocktail Break Wall Street Journal January 25 1999

85. Johnson C, Philpott P Viral Load of Crap Reappraising AIDS Vol 4:10 October 1996; Duesberg P 1995 Nature 357 p197

86. Rasnick D Kinetics Analysis of Consecutive HIV Proteolytic Cleavages of the Gag-Pol Polyprotein Journal of Biological Chemistry March 7 1997

87. Mullis K October 1998 The Medical Establishment vs. The Truth Penthouse Magazine

88. Rich J, et al 1999 Misdiagnosis of HIV Infection by HIV-1 Plasma Viral Load Testing: A Case Series Annals of Internal Medicine 130:37-39; Sullivan, et al Persistently Negative HIV-1 Antibody Enzyme Immunoassay Screening Results for Patients with HIV-1 Infection and AIDS AIDS January 14 1999 13:89-96

89. Piatak M March 19 1993 High Levels of HIV-1 in Plasma During All Stages of Infection Determined by Competitive PCR Science 259:1749-53; Roehr B Loading Zone POZ Magazine August 1999 p76

90. New England Journal of Medicine November 3 1994 331:18 p1176-1177

91. Semba R, et al 1993 Increased Mortality Associated with Vitamin A Deficiency During HIV-1 Infection Arch Intern Med 153:2149-2154

92. WHO/UNAIDS, 1998 HIV and Infant Feeding: A Guide for Health Care Managers and Supervisors FRH/Nut 98, 22

93. HealthNews Mothering magazine Summer 1997 p40; Dew J October 8 1999 Newborn HIV Tests Criticized New Haven Register

94. Farber C AZT Roulette: The Impossible Choices Facing HIV Positive Mothers Mothering magazine September/October 1998 Issue 90

95. Semba R, et al 1993 Increased Mortality Associated with Vitamin A Deficiency During HIV-1 Infection Arch Intern Med 153:2149-2154

96. Kumar R, et al 1994 Zidovudine Use in Pregnancy: A Report on 104 cases and Birth Defects Journal of AIDS 7(10):1034-1039

97. Cordes R, et al 1995 Pitfalls in HIV Testing Postgraduate Medicine 98:177; Ng V, et al Serological Diagnosis with Recombinant Peptides/Proteins Clinical Chemistry 37:1667-1668; Profitt M, et al 1993 Laboratory Diagnosis of HIV Infection Inf Dis Clin North Am 7:203; Steckelberg J, Cockerill F 1988 Serologic Testing for HIV Antibodies Mayo Clinic Proc 63:373; Voevodi A 1992 HIV Screening in Russia Lancet 339:1548

98. Mothering magazine Summer 1997 Health News p40

99. Cleary, et al 1987 Journal of the American Medical Association 258(13):1757-62

100. US Centers for Disease Control Recommendations of the US Public Heath Service Task Force on the Use of Zidovudine [AZT] to Reduce Perinatal Transmission of HIV Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Vol 43 No RR-11 August 5 1994

101. Regush N No AZT For My Baby, Please ABCNews.com September 16 1999

102. Gwarteny D Baby's Risk for HIV Sparks Fight The Oregonian January 31 1999; Wright J Court Grants Delay in Baby HIV Case The Register-Guard February 5 1999

103. Good Morning America September 9 1998

104. Philpott P Maine Mother Wins Court Fight Against HIV Doctors Reappraising AIDS Vol 6 October 10 1998

105. Mother Wins Right to Stop HIV Drugs New York Times April 20 1999; Dateline NBC January 25, 1999; A Mother's Instinct People Magazine October 5 1998 p157-158

106. News Broadcast, CJOB 68 August 18 1999; PeritzI Mother Fights to Block Son's HIV Drug Therapy The Globe and Mail (Canada) August 18 1999

107. McKittrick A Ethical Drug Pricing: An Oxymoron? Provincetown Positive Spring 1999 p37-39

108. Duesberg P 1996 Inventing the AIDS Virus Regnery Press, Washington DC p 309-359

109. Physicians Desk Reference 1994 p32

110. Duesberg P 1996 Inventing the AIDS Virus Regnery Press, Washington DC p 309-359

111. Lauritsen J 1993 The AIDS War Askelpios, New York, FDA Documents Show Fraud in AZT Trials p381-397

112. Lancet 1993 343:871, Concorde Coordinating Committee; Journal of the American Medical Association 1988 203:3009; New England Journal of Medicine 1992 326:437. Source: Hand T Why Antiviral Drugs Cannot Resolve AIDS Reappraising AIDS Vol 4:9 September 1996

113. Source: Interview with Dr. Charles Thomas in video HIV=AIDS: Fact or Fraud? Starvision Productions (Stephen Allen, prod.) Denver CO; Duesberg P 1996 Inventing the AIDS Virus Regnery Press, Washington DC p 309-359

114. British Medical Journal July 15 1995 p156-158 (49%); Science Magazine February 24 1995 p1080 (34%); JAMA 260:3009 1988; New England Journal of Medicine 1992, 326:437. Source: Hand T Why Antiviral Drugs Cannot Resolve AIDS Reappraising AIDS Vol 4:9 September 1996

115. Merck Manual 1992 16th edition p55, Merck Research Laboratories; Glaxo-Wellcome information sheet accompanying Zidovudine

116. Hammer S, et al 1997 A Controlled Trial of Two Nucleoside Analogues Indinavir in Persons with HIV New England Journal of Medicine 337:725-733

117. Merck ad for Crixivan A&U magazine July 1999 99-4084 910 (508) CRX

118. Anderson M The Big Tease Valley Advocate February 20 1997

119. Interview with Christine Maggiore September 1997

120. AIDS expert Dr. Bruce Walker on ABC News Nightline May 19 1999 11:35 PM EST

121. Ostrom N The New York Native July 15 1996 Issue 691

122. POZ magazine July 1999: Glaxo-Wellcome Ad for Ziagen (abacavir sulfate), December 1998 MG-001; Merck Ad for Crixivan (indinavir) Merck and Co, Inc. 1998 99-4084; Roxanne Ad for Viramune (nevirapine) July 1999, RX-2140 (4/98); Glaxo-Wellcome Ad for Combivir (lamivudine/zidovudine) March 1999

123. Journal of the American Medical Association July 10 1996

124. Johnson H Rolling Stone Magazine Special Report: Dr. David Ho and the Lazarus Equation March 6 1997

125. Levy J 1996 AIDS Surrogate Markers: Is There Truth in Numbers? JAMA Vol 276 p161-162

126. Merck ad for Crixivan A&U magazine July 1999 99-4084 910 (508) CRX

127. Altman L New York Times February 2 1996; Garrett L Newsday March 5 1996; The Boston Globe February 1 1999

128. Dr. Raymond Schinazi of Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia. Source: Garrett L Newsday March 31 1995

129. Lancet June 1 1997 Vol 349 p1745; Associated Press Report, Philadelphia Inquirer June 13 1997; Anderson M The Big Tease The Valley Advocate February 20 1997; Green F Cocktail Hangover Cleveland Free Times May 5 1999 Vol 7 Issue 33; Signorile M 641,086 and Counting Out magazine September 1998

130. The Morning After POZ magazine February 1997

131. US Centers for Disease Control 1999 HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report Year-end 1998; 9(2) Calculations: David Crowe, Alberta Reappraising AIDS Society; US Centers for Disease Control 1998 HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report Year-end 1997 p25 Figure 6

132. US Centers for Disease Control HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report Year-end editions 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993 (AIDS indicator conditions reported by age group, US)

133. Interview with Christine Maggiore September 1997

134. US Centers for Disease Control 1999 HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report Year-end 1998; 9(2) Calculations: David Crowe, Alberta Reappraising AIDS Society; US Centers for Disease Control 1998 HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report Year-end 1997 p25 Figure 6

135. Gallo R 1984 Science 224; Piatak M 1993 Science 259; Ho D 1991 New England Journal of Medicine 324:961; Shaw G 1991 New England Journal of Medicine 324:954; Cooper 1992 Lancet 341:1099

136. Duesberg P 1996 Inventing the AIDS Virus Regnery Press, Washington DC p174-180

137. Bialy H, Duesberg P March 1995 Letter to Nature. Source: AIDS: Virus or Drug Induced? Duesberg P (editor) 1996 Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands

138. Ho D, et al 1995 Rapid Turnover of Plasma Virions and CD4 Lymphocytes in HIV-1 Infection Nature 373:123-126; Wei X, et al 1995 Nature 373:117-122

139. Kary Mullis at HEAL Los Angeles, October 25 1995

140. Philpott P, Johnson C 1996 Viral Load of Crap Reappraising AIDS Vol 4:10 p2

141. Johnson C Viral Load and the PCR Continuum Vol 4:4 November/ December 1996

142. CDC faxback document #320320 sent in reply to an inquiry by Christine Johnson

143. Roche Amplicor PCR Diagnostics HIV-1 Monitor test kit pamphlet

144. Defer C, et al 1992 Multicenter Quality Control of PCR Detection of HIV DNA AIDS 6:659-663; Bush, et al 1992, Journal of AIDS 5:872; Gerberding J 1994 Incidence and Prevalence of HIV, Hepatitis B, and CMV Among Health Care Personnel at Risk for Blood Exposure Journal of Infectious Disease 170:1410-1417; de Mendoza, et al 1998 False Positive for HIV Using Commercial Viral Load Quantification Assays AIDS 12:2076-2077; Rich J, et al 1999 Misdiagnosis of HIV Infection by HIV-1 Plasma Viral Load Testing: A Case Series, Annals of Internal Medicine 130:37-39

145. Schwartz D, et al 1997 Extensive Evaluation of a Seronegative Participant in an HIV-1 Vaccine Trial as a Result of False-Positive PCR, Lancet Vol 350 No 9073 p256

146. Rasnick D 1997 Kinetics Analysis of Consecutive HIV Proteolytic Cleavages of the Gag-Pol Polyprotein Journal of Biological Chemistry March 7 p6348-6353

147. Piatak M, et al 1993 Science 259:1749-53

148. Roderer M 1998 Getting to the HAART of T Cell Dynamics Nature Medicine Vol 4:2 p145-146; Levy J 1996 AIDS Surrogate Markers: Is There Truth in Numbers? JAMA Vol 276 p161-162

149. Levy J 1996 AIDS Surrogate Markers: Is There Truth in Numbers? JAMA Vol 276 p161-162

150. Philpott P, Johnson C 1996 Viral Load of Crap Reappraising AIDS Vol 4:10 p2

151. Papadopulos-Eleopulos E, et al 1988 Reappraisal of AIDS: Is the Oxidation Induced by the Risk Factors the Primary Cause? Medical Hypothesis 25:151-162

152. Papadopulos-Eleopulos E, et al 1993 Is A Positive Western Blot Proof of HIV Infection? Bio/Technology 11:696-707; Papadopulos-Eleopulos E, et al 1996 The Isolation of HIV: Has it Really Been Achieved? Continuum Vol 4:3 Supplement p1-24; Turner V 1996 Do HIV Antibody Tests Prove HIV Infection? Continuum 1996 Vol 3:5 p8-11; Papadopulos-Eleopulos E, Stewart G, et al 1997 HIV Antibodies: Further Questions and a Plea for Clarification Current Medical Research and Opinion 13:627-634

153. Philpott P 1997 The Isolation Question Reappraising AIDS Vol 5:6 June/July/August

154. Gallo R 1984 Science 224:497-508; Piatak M 1993 Science 259:1749-1754; Piatak M 1993 Lancet 341:1099; Daar, et al 1991 New England Journal of Medicine 324[14]:961-964; Clark, et al 1991 New England Journal of Medicine 324:954-960; Cooper, et al 1992 Lancet 340:1257-1258

155. Nature Magazine May 26 1994

156. Morning Report Los Angeles Times May 16 1996 F-2

157. Project Inform letter to Dr. Bruce Alberts, President of the National Academy of Sciences, July 31 1997: Endorsements are for signers as of August 20 1997

158. Letter to Christine Maggiore from Ric Parish, PLUS Programs Manager, May 30 1997

159. Anderson MK 1997 Sick of It All The Valley Advocate January 15 1998

160. Farber C 1995 AIDS Inc.: Observations of an AIDS Dissident Provincetown Positive April/May Issue p14-18

161. Garrett L The Virus at the End of The World Esquire magazine March 1999

162. A&U America's AIDS Magazine June 1999 Issue 56

163. Duesberg P 1987 Retroviruses as Carcinogens and Pathogens: Expectations and Reality Cancer Research 47:1199-1220

164. Interview with Christine Maggiore August 25 1999

165. Eichenwald K, Kolata G Drug Trials Hide Conflicts for Doctors New York Times May 16 1999

166. Smith M, Sticking Point: AIDS Vaccine Designed by Don Francis in Final Testing San Francisco Weekly July 14 1999

167. CNN Website Massive Trial of AIDS Vaccine to Begin in Thailand February 10 1999 8:27 pm EST

168. Dissecting Room Lancet Vol 353 May 15 1999 p1719

169. McGinley L Price of Success: Powerful Treatments Create Growing Rift Among AIDS Groups Wall Street Journal December 20 1996

170. Drug Money Counter Punch magazine July 1 1998

171. Farber C 1995 AIDS Inc.: Observations of an AIDS Dissident Provincetown Positive April/May Issue p14-18

172. US Centers for Disease Control HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report Year-end editions through 1998

173. WHO website http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/social/un/2098.3ce6.html Ratios of estimated AIDS cases/reported AIDS cases for African countries with highest estimated AIDS cases: Angola 22/1; Congo 13/1; Ethiopia 55/1; Kenya 9/1; Madagascar 69/1; Mozambique 48/1; Nigeria 35/1; South Africa 33/1; Uganda 37/1; Zimbabwe 10/1. For all African countries (with available data) combined, the ratio of estimated AIDS cases to reported AIDS cases is 16/1

174. CDC national AIDS advertising campaign, October 1987: 38 TV commercials, 8 radio spots, 6 print ads

175. Bennett A, Sharpe A Health Hazard: AIDS Fight Skewed by Federal Campaign Exaggerating Risks Wall Street Journal May 1996 p1

176. Philpott P CDC Releases Data for 1995: What HIV/AIDS Epidemic? Reappraising AIDS Vol 4:7 July 1996

177. US Centers for Disease Control HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report Year-end editions 1993 through 1998 with one exception: AIDS in teenage boys rose from 238 in 1994 to 245 in 1995

178. Laboratory Centre for Disease Control, Health Canada, 1998 HIV and AIDS in Canada: Surveillance Report to December 31 1997 p1

179. Until There's a Cure advertisement www.until.org

180. Interview with Patty Dwyer from Until There's A Cure September 3, 1999 (800) 888-UNTIL

181. WHO website http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/social/un/2098.3ce6.html Ratios of estimated AIDS cases/reported AIDS cases for African countries with highest estimated AIDS cases: Angola 22/1; Congo 13/1; Ethiopia 55/1; Kenya 9/1; Madagascar 69/1; Mozambique 48/1; Nigeria 35/1; South Africa 33/1; Uganda 37/1; Zimbabwe 10/1. For all African countries (with available data) combined, the ratio of estimated AIDS cases to reported AIDS cases is 16/1

182. China Says HIV Cases Estimated at 400,000 April 1 1999 4:25 am EST Reuters, Bejing

183. Merck Manual 1899 first edition

184. Mendelsohn R 1984 How To Raise a Healthy Child In Spite of Your Doctor Ballentine Books, New York p13-15

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